guardian
guardian:

Which countries are responsible for climate change?
Country sizes show the eventual CO₂ emissions from oil, coal and gas extracted each year. Many of these fuels are exported rather than used domestically, but arguably the countries extracting and selling fossil fuels bear a degree of responsibility for the resulting emissions.
See who is most vulnerable to global warming’s impacts »

guardian:

Which countries are responsible for climate change?

Country sizes show the eventual CO₂ emissions from oil, coal and gas extracted each year. Many of these fuels are exported rather than used domestically, but arguably the countries extracting and selling fossil fuels bear a degree of responsibility for the resulting emissions.

See who is most vulnerable to global warming’s impacts »

PRIMERAS IMÁGENES DE LAS MONTAÑAS SUBMARINAS DE ISLAS CANARIAS.

Las montañas submarinas del norte de Canarias, Dacia y Tritón, han sido documentadas por primera vez durante la expedición que Oceana está llevando a cabo en la zona, a través de inmersiones con vehículos operados a distancia (ROV).

Las fotografías muestran extensos bosques de corales negros en la cima de Dacia, una gran diversidad de esponjas en las laderas de Tritón, incluyendo espectaculares esponjas cristal y esponjas carnívoras, y diferentes gorgonias, corales, peces de profundidad, tiburones, etc.

El Gobierno español, a través del Proyecto LIFE+ Indemares, ha estudiado otra de las elevaciones marinas que pertenecen a este conjunto,  el banco de la Concepción, que será una de las futuras áreas marinas protegidas del Atlántico.

Estas montañas pueden ser consideradas como las ‘otras’ islas Canarias, algunas de las cuales, aunque sumergidas en la actualidad, llegaron a emerger”, dice Helena Álvarez, científica marina de Oceana. “España debería estudiar y proteger –añade– estas montañas marinas para que, junto a Portugal, Europa pudiera contar con una extensa área marina protegida donde decenas de elevaciones submarinas albergarían una de las faunas más ricas y diversas del planeta

FIRST IMAGES OF SEAMOUNTS FROM CANARY ISLANDS.

An investigation by Oceana, has documented and imaged seamounts of northern Canary Islands, Dacia and Triton seamounts. The images obtained show extensive forests of black corals on the summit of Dacia, and a great diversity of sponges on the slopes of Tritón, including spectacular glass sponges and carnivorous sponges, as well as different gorgonians, corals, deep sea fish and sharks etc.

The research is being carried out by means of ROV dives, documenting from the summit of Dacia, about 100 metres below the surface, to a depth of almost 1,000 metres on the slopes of Tritón. These mountains are located 190 nm and 110 nm to the north of the island of La Graciosa, respectively. They are more than 2,000 m in height and rise up from a sea bed with a depth of 3,000 metres. Tritón has two peaks and stretches out to a length of around 60 kilometres, while Dacia has a diameter of just over 20 km.

These mountains could be considered as the ‘other’ Canary Islands, some of which, though now submerged, at one time rose up out of the sea, says Helena Álvarez, marine scientist at Oceana. “Spain should study and protect these seamounts so that, together with Portugal, it could provide Europe with an extensive marine protected area where dozens of seamounts would be home to one of the richest and most diverse faunas on the planet.”

  • Photo: Fishes Mediterranean moray (Muraena helena) in black coral (Stichopathes sp.) field. Oven’s Halosaur (Halosaurus ovenii). Arrowhead Dogfish (Deania profundorum). Facciola’s Sorcerer (Facciolella oxyrhyncha) Toadfish (Chaunax suttkusi) and Common mora (Mora moroand invertebrate Black coral (Bathypathes patula) Carnivorous sponge (Chondrocladia sp.) and deep sea coral (Narella sp.) - all pic by OCEANA

THE DIATOMIST by Matthew Killip (4:26 min)

THE DIATOMIST is a short documentary about Klaus Kemp, master of the Victorian art of diatom arrangement. Diatoms are single cell algae that create jewel-like glass shells around themselves. Microscopists of the Victorian era would arrange them into complex patterns, invisible to the naked eye but spectacular when viewed under magnification.The best of these arrangements are stunning technical feats that reveal the hidden grandeur of some of the smallest organisms on Earth. Klaus Kemp has devoted his entire life to understanding and perfecting diatom arrangement and he is now acknowledged as the last great practitioner of this beautiful combination of art and science. THE DIATOMIST showcases his incredible work.

Soundtrack by Ryuichi Sakamoto, Bernard Herrmann and Cults Percussion Ensemble.

The ancient, Chinese sturgeon, thought to have existed for more than 140 million years, is now on the brink of extinction.

Xinhua reported that no wild sturgeon reproduced naturally last year in the Yangtze river. It was the first time since researchers began recording levels 32 years ago.
Chinese researches say the fall is due to rising levels of pollution in the Yangtze river and the construction of dozens of dams.
Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences also found that no young sturgeons were found swimming along the Yangtze toward the sea during the period they usually do so.
A researcher told Xinhua that in the 1980s, at least several thousand sturgeon could be found in the river. It is estimated only around 100 fish remain.
n recent decades the Chinese authorities have built numerous dams along the 6,300km-long Yangtze river to boost the country’s electricity supply. Such moves have drawn criticism of environmental degradation and displacement of villagers.
The WWF says that one of two species of dolphins native to the Yangtze river, the Baiji dolphin, wentextinct in 2006because of declining fish stocks.
The other species, the finless porpoise, issaid to be at riskfrom illegal and intensive fishing practices and pollution. About 1,200 to 1,800 finless porpoises remain in the entire 1.8 million sq km Yangtze basin.

via BBC

The ancient, Chinese sturgeon, thought to have existed for more than 140 million years, is now on the brink of extinction.

Xinhua reported that no wild sturgeon reproduced naturally last year in the Yangtze river. It was the first time since researchers began recording levels 32 years ago.

Chinese researches say the fall is due to rising levels of pollution in the Yangtze river and the construction of dozens of dams.

Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences also found that no young sturgeons were found swimming along the Yangtze toward the sea during the period they usually do so.

A researcher told Xinhua that in the 1980s, at least several thousand sturgeon could be found in the river. It is estimated only around 100 fish remain.

n recent decades the Chinese authorities have built numerous dams along the 6,300km-long Yangtze river to boost the country’s electricity supply. Such moves have drawn criticism of environmental degradation and displacement of villagers.

The WWF says that one of two species of dolphins native to the Yangtze river, the Baiji dolphin, wentextinct in 2006because of declining fish stocks.

The other species, the finless porpoise, issaid to be at riskfrom illegal and intensive fishing practices and pollution. About 1,200 to 1,800 finless porpoises remain in the entire 1.8 million sq km Yangtze basin.

CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO PONE EN PROBLEMAS A LOS TIBURONES

Una consecuencia de la quema de combustibles fósiles es que el aumento de los niveles de dióxido de carbono en la atmósfera aumentan las temperaturas medias globales. Además, los océanos absorben dióxido de carbono, lo que provoca que se acidifique el agua de mar.
La acidificación del océano podría causar que se disuelvan muchos arrecifes de coral, moluscos también tendrían problemas al formar sus conchas, ahora, tiburones también dan señales de problemas frente a agua con niveles de acidez alteradas.
Tiburones en el agua del océano acidificado (debido demasiado dióxido de carbono) alteran su comportamiento, nadando en rachas superiores a los tiburones en el agua típica del océano, en particular durante sus vagabundeos nocturnos. 
Anteriormente, se ha encontrado que algunas especies pierden su capacidad olfativa en ambientes ácidos. 
Los nuevos hallazgos son preocupantes, dado que uno de los efectos del consumo humano de combustibles fósiles es hacer que el agua del océano se vuelva más ácido. Si la quema de combustibles fósiles continúa como está, los tiburones pueden enfrentar aún más desafíos que hoy en día. - Cuando un cuarto de las especies de tiburones está en peligro de extinción.

Imagen pintada de Cantabria (Scyliorhinus canicula) by N Sloth.
Referencia: Green & Jutfelt. 2014. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the plasma composition and behaviour of a shark y Rosa et al. 2014 Early-life exposure to climate change impairs tropical shark survival
English Version

CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO PONE EN PROBLEMAS A LOS TIBURONES

Una consecuencia de la quema de combustibles fósiles es que el aumento de los niveles de dióxido de carbono en la atmósfera aumentan las temperaturas medias globales. Además, los océanos absorben dióxido de carbono, lo que provoca que se acidifique el agua de mar.

La acidificación del océano podría causar que se disuelvan muchos arrecifes de coral, moluscos también tendrían problemas al formar sus conchas, ahora, tiburones también dan señales de problemas frente a agua con niveles de acidez alteradas.

Tiburones en el agua del océano acidificado (debido demasiado dióxido de carbono) alteran su comportamiento, nadando en rachas superiores a los tiburones en el agua típica del océano, en particular durante sus vagabundeos nocturnos. 

Anteriormente, se ha encontrado que algunas especies pierden su capacidad olfativa en ambientes ácidos. 

Los nuevos hallazgos son preocupantes, dado que uno de los efectos del consumo humano de combustibles fósiles es hacer que el agua del océano se vuelva más ácido. Si la quema de combustibles fósiles continúa como está, los tiburones pueden enfrentar aún más desafíos que hoy en día. - Cuando un cuarto de las especies de tiburones está en peligro de extinción.

VIDEO PLANKTON RECORDER (VPR) WHAT IS AND WHY DO RESEARCHERS USE IT

The Video Plankton Recorder (VPR) is an underwater video microscope system that that takes images of plankton and particulate matter as small as 50 microns and up to a few centimeters in size. The instrument is used to help scientists quickly measure the distributional patterns of plankton without destroying their delicate forms, as can happen when using nets and bottles.

The VPR system automatically identifies the plankton and displays their distributional patterns in real time. The VPR is eight feet long and six feet wide. It is comprised of an aluminum frame covered in a fiberglass skin. It weighs 900 pounds on land, and one hundred pounds in water. 

Video Plankton Recorder system shows underwater and shipboard components (the V-fin towfish is shown). The VPR is towed off the side of the ship and is moved up and down in the water column. At the same time, video is processed on board to extract in-focus images, identify them to major taxa, and display their distributions.

  • Illustration by Jayne Doucette, WHOI
  • More: WHOI