Marinero de Agua Dulce

Marine science, biology of the seas, some dissident info and riot are here

Is moth week and I can’t be out!! the fish family Pegasidae, aka sea moths, includes just five species (placed in two genera) but is represented in temperate and tropical coastal zones throughout the Indo-Pacific. All sea moths are small (no more than than ~180 mm total length), benthic (bottom-dwelling), and very well camouflaged. Seamoths have modified pelvic fins that allow them to “walk” across the sea bottom where they live.

A curious behavior seen in these fish (almost in Eurypegasus draconis) is that they sheds their skins in one piece, probably every one to five days, a process described in some detail by Herold and Clark (1993). These researcher also discuss evidence suggesting monogamy in this species, as well as other aspects of social and reproductive behavior.

A newly discovered species of Cambrian anomalocaridids, dubbed Lyrarapax unguispinus (on right), shows some similarities in its nervous system to a modern-day group known as velvet worms (shown on left). In both, nerves from the frontal appendages link to ganglia in front of the optic nerve and connect to the main brain mass in front of the mouth. (Instead of feelers, the ancient creature had grasping claws).
How scientists know? Because a spectacularly preserved  Lyrarapax unguispinus was unearthed in China. The 520-million-year-old sea creature was so well-preserved that parts of its brain and nervous system were clearly defined.
Credit:Illustration by Nicholas Strausfel and photograph by Peiyun Cong
From Live Sciece

A newly discovered species of Cambrian anomalocaridids, dubbed Lyrarapax unguispinus (on right), shows some similarities in its nervous system to a modern-day group known as velvet worms (shown on left). In both, nerves from the frontal appendages link to ganglia in front of the optic nerve and connect to the main brain mass in front of the mouth. (Instead of feelers, the ancient creature had grasping claws).

How scientists know? Because a spectacularly preserved  Lyrarapax unguispinus was unearthed in China. The 520-million-year-old sea creature was so well-preserved that parts of its brain and nervous system were clearly defined.

  • Credit:Illustration by Nicholas Strausfel and photograph by Peiyun Cong
  • From Live Sciece

HEY SICK CORAL TAKE YOUR PROBIOTICS - Probiotics Could Help Fight Disease Corals

Bacteria eroding miles of Caribbean coral reefs could be halted in future by giving the beauty spots a precautionary dose of probiotics - almost like a ‘Yakult’ for the reefs - suggests a research team led by the University of Derby.

Microbes including bacteria, fungi and viruses can kill living corals and erode vast stretches of their reefs, with those in the Caribbean having particularly been threatened by White Band Disease (WBD) over the last 40 years. This is not only seen as an ecological disaster - due to the many species that live on and around the coral reefs - but also as affecting tourism, coastlines and the local fishing industry.

An international research team led by the University of Derby and including Newcastle University, the Universidad Simón Bolívar of Venezuala and the University of the South Pacific of Fiji looked at what caused WBD and how coral reefs might be protected from it. Researchers found that, not unlike humans, numerous antibiotics stopped the disease or significantly slowed it down. By studying the corals this way, the researchers were able to determine what caused WBD thorough a process of elimination. They tested four different antibiotics to see what effect they had on the disease and found that two successfully cured the corals.

Even though two different antibiotics cured the corals, the researchers do not advocate using this tactic with corals in the ocean, as excessive antibiotic use can create antibiotic-resistant microbes and superbugs.

Instead, they suggest using a probiotic to replace the natural defenses that the coral loses when it gets sick.

In our opinion, these results highlight why researchers have struggled to find a single agent causing these ‘White Syndromes’ on coral reefs around the world. - Michael Sweet Researc team leader and senior lecture in Invertebrate Biology at UD.

bye bro, i see you soon

bye bro, i see you soon

I’ll be out for a while, my friend has died and I need time

The spotted handfish (Brachionichthys hirsutus), an amazing creature that walks the ocean floor, is a rare Australian fish from the family Brachionichthyidae. It is classified as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List 2002. is the first Australian marine species to be threatened with extinction.

The greatest threats to the handfish appear to be siltation and invasive species. The Derwent Estuary where the fish lives is highly urbanised and industrialised, and a range of marine pests have been introduced through shipping.  One key pest is the Northern Pacific Seastar (Asterias amurensis), a particularly large and voracious predator that is now abundant in the estuary. Studies by CSIRO show that the seastars eat the stalked ascidians that the handfish use to attach their eggs.

HAS ANTARCTIC SEA ICE EXPANSION BEEN OVERESTIMATED? Antartica record high sea ice partially an artifact of an algorithm

Recent estimates indicate that the Antarctic sea ice cover is expanding at a statistically significant rate with a magnitude one-third as large as the rapid rate of sea ice retreat in the Arctic. However, during the mid-2000s, with several fewer years in the observational record, the trend in Antarctic sea ice extent was reported to be considerably smaller and statistically indistinguishable from zero.
Arctic sea ice is retreating at a dramatic rate. In contrast, satellite observations suggest that sea ice cover in the Antarctic is expanding – albeit at a moderate rate – and that sea ice extent has reached record highs in recent years. What’s causing Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover to increase in a warming world has puzzled scientists since the trend was first spotted. Now, a team of researchers has suggested that much of the measured expansion may be due to an error, not previously documented, in the way satellite data was processed.
“This implies that the Antarctic sea ice trends reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC’s) AR4 and AR5 [the 2007 and 2013 assessment reports] can’t both be correct: our findings show that the data used in one of the reports contains a significant error. But we have not yet been able to identify which one contains the error,” said Eisenman.

Photo by Eva Nowatzki
Reference (Open Access): Eisenman et al. 2014. A spurious jump in the satellite record: Has antarctic sea ice expansion been overestimated? The Cryosphere

HAS ANTARCTIC SEA ICE EXPANSION BEEN OVERESTIMATED? Antartica record high sea ice partially an artifact of an algorithm

Recent estimates indicate that the Antarctic sea ice cover is expanding at a statistically significant rate with a magnitude one-third as large as the rapid rate of sea ice retreat in the Arctic. However, during the mid-2000s, with several fewer years in the observational record, the trend in Antarctic sea ice extent was reported to be considerably smaller and statistically indistinguishable from zero.

Arctic sea ice is retreating at a dramatic rate. In contrast, satellite observations suggest that sea ice cover in the Antarctic is expanding – albeit at a moderate rate – and that sea ice extent has reached record highs in recent years. What’s causing Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover to increase in a warming world has puzzled scientists since the trend was first spotted. Now, a team of researchers has suggested that much of the measured expansion may be due to an error, not previously documented, in the way satellite data was processed.

This implies that the Antarctic sea ice trends reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC’s) AR4 and AR5 [the 2007 and 2013 assessment reports] can’t both be correct: our findings show that the data used in one of the reports contains a significant error. But we have not yet been able to identify which one contains the error,” said Eisenman.

kqedscience:

“There’s a new development in the story about 12-year-old Lauren Arrington’s remarkable science fair project about the invasive potential of lionfish. A marine biologist is now claiming that the project was based on published work he did back in 2011 — and that the girl is the daughter of his former supervisor’s best friend.”
Read more from io9.

kqedscience:

There’s a new development in the story about 12-year-old Lauren Arrington’s remarkable science fair project about the invasive potential of lionfish. A marine biologist is now claiming that the project was based on published work he did back in 2011 — and that the girl is the daughter of his former supervisor’s best friend.”

Read more from io9.

microecos:

My first attempt at iphone photogrammetry. A walrus palate dredged up from the sea floor off of Cape Cod. Pretty fun! #fossils #fossil #photogrammetry #123d #autodesk #walrus #nmnh #smithsonian (at Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History)

microecos:

My first attempt at iphone photogrammetry. A walrus palate dredged up from the sea floor off of Cape Cod. Pretty fun! #fossils #fossil #photogrammetry #123d #autodesk #walrus #nmnh #smithsonian (at Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History)

rhamphotheca:

SeaWorld is 50 years old and we have 50 good reasons NOT to go there!No. 33:  In the wild, the mean life expectancy of orcas is 30 years for males and 50 for females. While a very small number of captive whales has achieved these average life spans, most die in their teens and 20s and none have come anywhere close to the estimated maximum life spans of 60-70 years for males and 80-90 for females. Please go to http://uk.whales.org/Wdc-in-action/ending-captive-cruelty to support our fight against captivity!

rhamphotheca:

SeaWorld is 50 years old and we have 50 good reasons NOT to go there!

No. 33:  In the wild, the mean life expectancy of orcas is 30 years for males and 50 for females. While a very small number of captive whales has achieved these average life spans, most die in their teens and 20s and none have come anywhere close to the estimated maximum life spans of 60-70 years for males and 80-90 for females.

Please go to http://uk.whales.org/
Wdc-in-action/ending-captive-cruelty to support our fight against captivity!

A redeye gaper (Chaunax sp.) venting water at 240 meters depth. Seen during the Lophelia II 2008 expedition at the Green Canyon site in the Gulf of Mexico.

Gapers are Lophiiformes, in the anglerfish group, with big heads, a network of open sensory canals,and a lateral canal extending posteriorly along a compressed trunk and tail. They are sit-and-wait, ambush predators

smartpeopleposting:

Should We Deliberately Edit The Genes Of Wild Animals?

A powerful new technique called a “gene drive” is opening up incredible possibilities for the control and manipulation of wildlife. Leading researchers say we need to have a debate now about whether we should be shaping the genetics of whole populations of wild animals.

A number of technologies have come together in recent years that are enabling scientists to manipulate genomes in profound ways. Among them is a tool known as CRISPR-Cas9, a technique that allows researchers to rewrite an organism’s DNA. Eventually, scientists will combine this gene-editing technique with gene drives — the deliberate insertion of “selfish genes” that appear more frequently in offspring than normal genes, which will have a 50-50 chance of being passed on.

It’s called a gene drive because it would allow scientists to drive a gene through a wild population of animals, such as mosquitoes, frogs, and weeds. Once introduced, nature would do the rest.

Via NPR: “Here, a mosquito with a gene drive (blue) mates with a mosquito without one (grey). In the offspring, one chromosome will have the drive. The endonuclease then slices into the drive-free DNA. When the strand gets repaired, the cell’s machinery uses the drive chromosome as a template, unwittingly copying the drive into the break.”

Powerful, powerful stuff. But also fraught with risks. That’s why a group of scientists are starting the debate. Yesterday, a group of U.S. researchers called for greater oversight of this powerful genetic technology. (more)

MICROPLASTIC ARE EVERYWHERE, ALSO IN GILL CRAB

The tiny plastic particles polluting our seas are not only orally ingested by marine creatures, but also enter their systems through their gills, according to a new study. When microplastics are drawn in through this method they take over six times longer to leave the body compared with standard digestion.

The researchers used fluorescently labelled polystyrene microspheres to show how ingested microplastics were retained within the body tissues of the common shore crab, Carcinus maenas. Multiphoton imaging suggested that most microspheres were retained in the foregut after sticking to hair-like ‘setae’ structures within the crabs

By the way, a recent study concluded that 88% of the ocean surface contains microplastic.

This giant isopod is a member of the genus Bathynomus. They are thought to be abundant in cold, deep waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Image courtesy of Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program

This giant isopod is a member of the genus Bathynomus. They are thought to be abundant in cold, deep waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

  • Image courtesy of Expedition to the Deep Slope 2006 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program